A new study, investigating links between gut bacteria and type 2 diabetes risks, has found that altering the microbiome can lower insulin resistance and change fat tissue metabolism.
The findings suggest that blocking gut bacteria from producing high levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) may be what resets these parameters to reduce risks.
Habitually, when we talk about resistance to insulin, it’s in reference to glucose and fat metabolism, but there’s a question as to whether such a resistance also affects protein metabolism.
TMAO happens to be a chemical by-product produced by specialised gut bacteria during the digestion of certain amino acids from protein, including choline, methionine, lecithin and carnitine – found in red meat, processed meats and egg yolks.
There is a large body of evidence, notably from Dr. Stanley Hazen, to show that dietary choline is metabolized by bacteria in our gut and then converted by the liver into TMAO.
Unsurprisingly, previous research also found TMAO to be linked to higher risks of heart disease. In some people with type 2 diabetes, there can be subtle abnormalities during the digestion of these TMAO-spiking amino acids.
When it comes to methionine and arginine, this may mean higher risks for vascular complications and insulin resistance. Those with high TMAO, in a study that followed 4,000 adults for three years, had a 2.5-fold increased risk of heart attack too.
Sadly, the solution may not be as easy as avoiding methionine or choline-rich protein foods. Many studies did not prove that eating choline-rich foods (or any other foods) increases TMAO levels over time.
In other words, even if eating that food does increase total TMAO levels, most people are able to quickly and efficiently clear that TMAO from their blood by excreting it in the urine. This makes it doubtful that diet is the only factor elevating it.
if eating choline-rich foods did increase the risk of heart disease (via TMAO or any other mechanism), we’d expect to see higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) in those that eat more egg, for example. Yet numerous studies have failed to find any such association.
Other factors that are likely to explain an increase in TMAO include differences in the gut microbiome that predispose toward increased TMAO production. Research suggests that large intakes of whole grains increase gut bacteria associated with the highest TMAO.
The second factor researchers looked at is flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Increased TMAO in the liver raises levels of an enzyme called FMO3 that carries out this conversion. Fmo3 activity is upregulated with insulin resistance.
All of these findings taken together tend to suggest that high levels of TMAO from excess methionine-rich protein foods (lean protein and muscle meat) are associated with higher type 2 diabetes risks.
The study is published in the Cell Reports journal.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body:
- Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or
- Being unable to produce enough insulin
Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body.
From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison.
This is why people with diabetes are advised to avoid sources of dietary sugar.
The good news is for very many people with type 2 diabetes this is all they have to do to stay well. If you can keep your blood sugar lower by avoiding dietary sugar, likely you will never need long-term medication.
Type 2 diabetes was formerly known as non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes due to its occurrence mainly in people over 40. However, type 2 diabetes is now becoming more common in young adults, teens and children and accounts for roughly 90% of all diabetes cases worldwide.
How serious is type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is a serious medical condition that often requires the use of anti-diabetic medication, or insulin to keep blood sugar levels under control. However, the development of type 2 diabetes and its side effects (complications) can be prevented if detected and treated at an early stage.
In recent years, it has become apparent that many people with type 2 diabetes are able to reverse diabetes through methods including low-carb diets, very-low-calorie diets and exercise.
For guidance on healthy eating to improve blood glucose levels and weight and to fight back against insulin resistance, join the Low Carb Program.
What causes type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the hormone insulin is not used effectively by the cells in your body….